Biochemical Response of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) Exposed to Sulfamethazine Antibiotic
Sulfamethazine is an antibiotic that belongs to the pharmaceutically crucial group of heterocyclic sulfonamides. Pharmaceuticals can impact
non-target organism in many ways even at very low concentrations and that more studies are needed to highlight and identify potential effects.
In this study, it is aimed to assess the biochemical response of Dreissena polymorpha exposed to a pharmaceutical pollutant sulfamethazine.
Dreissena polymorpha individuals were provided with handnets from Keban Dam Lake. During a two-week acclimatization period,
mussels were kept in 10 L glass tanks each with approximately hundred individuals at 20 ± 0.5 °C. Dreissena polymorpha were exposed to
sulfamethazine during 96 h. Five experimental groups were designed as following: control (tap water); A,0.1 g/L; B, 0.25 g/L; C, 1 g/L; 4, g/L
sulfamethazine exposure groups.
The samples were weighed first and homogenized using a homogenizer with ice, adding 1/5 w/v of PBS buffer (phosphate buffered saline
solution) (pH 7.4). The homogenized samples were centrifuged at 17000 rpm for 15 minutes in a refrigerated centrifuge and the supernatants
were stored at -70 °C deep-freezing.
MDA levels in all application groups were increased significantly depending on sulfamethazine exposure (p<0.05). GSH levels were increased
A and D groups (p<0.05) but decreased in B and C groups (p<0.05).
MDA and GSH levels in the Dreissena polymorpha are sensitive and suitable biochemical biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity of